Minnowboard Turbot Review

I purchased a Minnowboard Turbot last month as, while I was very happy with my Raspberry Pi 2 and was looking at the 3, I wanted something that was significantly faster and, more to the point for me, used an x86 CPU. The Turbot is the 3rd iteration (that I’m aware of) of the Minnowboard, and the first one that I ever considered buying. Things like having the RTC battery holder soldered on already (although I am skilled at soldering), and improvements with HDMI output compatibility, along with performance improvements in both graphics and raw speed, garnered enough of my interest to warrant a purchase.

After putting it through its paces and installing a good half dozen Linux distros on it, I have to say that this would make an excellent low-end media center PC as, with a dual core CPU and 2GB of RAM, it can handle 1080p video without a problem, as well as low-end gaming & emulation. While Higan bounced between 10 -45 fps so often even SMW was unplayable, ZSNES (which I remember running SMW at playable speeds on my dad’s 486 SX 25mhz under DOS 6.22 18 years ago) offered a wonderful experience. Early MAME games were playable, but anything past 1989 is hit and miss.

Power usage is impressive, with idling watts as low as 2.9, though ~3.5 seems to be the norm under Lubuntu 16.04. Running the Nexiuz benchmark, I managed to get the power usage (as reported by EZ Watt at least) up to 10.1, although it was hovering in the high 9’s most of the time. I’m currently having it connect to my security camera via rtsp and it still hovers around the 4.5w mark.

When you factor in that this little unit makes no noise, and while it can get a bit warm, it could still be handled, even while compiling MAME, which took 12 – 18 hours (I fell asleep and it was finished when I checked after waking up).

While I am very impressed with the Turbot and have noticed the company behind them are coming out with faster (and quad core) versions, I am looking onward towards  the Intel Core M CPU’s, as they appear to offer remarkable performance, albeit at a higher price point than the Atom x64 CPU the Turbot uses.

I don’t regret getting the Turbot and enjoy having a computer that is always on and yet makes no noise and uses almost no power.

Turbot-Box-01 Turbot-Box-02 Turbot-AC_AdapterTurbot-In_the_Dark Turbot-Mighty_Mouse Turbot-Thumb_DriveTurbot_Mix_Power_Usage Turbot_Max_Power_Usage Turbot_Nexiuz

Linux Mint 18

I purchased a new Samsung 850 Pro SSD to use as a boot drive, and took the opportunity to install the newest version of Linux Mint while I was at it. This was roughly two weeks ago. It took me the better part of a day to install all of the various programs I use on a regular basis, though part of that was because I wasn’t rushing anything. Once I have Palemoon and Thunderbird setup with my profiles, everything else gets taken care of while I carry on my regular computer routine.

So far it is even nicer than the Linux Mint 17.x series, which was amazing all on its own. I am using the x64 MATE version with compiz as my window manager, and it actually feels even faster than before, even factoring in the newer, faster SSD, as it’s not just hard drive-related tasks that haven gotten faster. Bluetooth support is MUCH improved, and I have been able to pair and use several Bluetooth devices without a problem. I’m still putting it through its paces, but the thought that keeps running through my mind, is how smooth everything is, and how little has changed in a bullet point, “brand new features!” type of way from the user’s point of view. I know they have a list, but the lack of a dramatic change I consider a good thing.

Mighty Mouse

In search of a decent corded mouse that will last a long time, I purchased a Mighty Mouse from Man & Machine, makers of keyboards and mice that you can spray down with various cleaning solutions commonly found in medical/industrial environments. In fact, your order comes with a list of what you can use on the mouse. Coupled with it being assembled in the USA, I took the plunge and ordered one. My mother ordered one for her husband and a petite mouse, which is the same as the Mighty Mouse, save for being a bit smaller. So far it seems responsive and feels durable. With the mouse wheel replaced by buttons this is something that will take some people some getting used to – my mom being one of them. This allows me to retire my MS Intellimouse 1.1 to backup duty. I do plan on getting another one of those, as the build quality on that model is worth tracking one down. This evaluation is ongoing, as durability is very important to me.



I have another review I’m working on regarding a different piece of equipment, but I still have pictures to process, so it’s going to be a bit. On a related note, I’ve been able to verify that newer Linux distros (Ubuntu 16.04-based) have no problem with UEFI. That being said, if Dell can make its newest laptops legacy/UEFI selectable, then others could as well.

New computers, new keyboard.

The computer I was using in my room to provide me with a computer to use when I’m too dizzy to get out of bed, died back in July, and so I decided to replace it with an Intel NUC. I chose a NUC5i5RYH, which has an Intel i5 CPU and loaded it with 16GB of RAM, as well as a 256GB M.2 Samsung 850 EVO drive. Since there was space in the machine to put a 2.5″ HD inside, I elected to put the old 120GB SSD that my dead computer was using, to provide extra storage. After initially only getting one of the RAM sticks to register, I pulled out and re-inserted the second RAM stick (I always worry with some of these machines, and tend to apply less force, rather than more, for fear of damaging the socket). After verifying that all the RAM could be seen by the BIOS, I quickly installed Linux Mint and have been happily using it since. I would post pics of the setup process, but frankly, I’m sure there are plenty of other pictures out there already, as I had originally planned on posting about this 6+ months ago. So, instead, here are a few general pictures of the unit after it was put together, along with shots of the power usage when idling and running benchmarks. It’s a nice machine, although I look forward to when the one fan in the machine, for the CPU, is no longer needed. Speaking of which…


My mom’s laptop is roughly 6 years old, and is towards the end of its life. While I will be wiping Windows 7 and replacing it with Linux Mint when she sends it to me, she really does deserve a new laptop. What I picked out for her, is a lot like what I was talking about over a year ago. I picked out a Toshiba Satellite Radius 11, which has a quad core Intel Pentium CPU, along with 4GB of RAM and a 128GB SSD. Best of all, no fan whatsoever, and a touchscreen to boot.

Toshiba_in_box Toshiba_in_box_open_01 Toshiba_in_box_open_02 Toshiba_in_box_open_03 Toshiba_warningsToshiba_out_of_the_boxToshiba_out_of_the_box_off Toshiba_out_of_the_box_on_installingLinux

I never bothered to even let the machine boot into Windows 8.1 before installing Linux. I ran into one problem after installing and rebooting the laptop once. It turns out that Toshiba (apparently along with Sony and HP), will NOT allow the laptop to boot in UFI mode, only allowing UEFI, which gave a “Reboot and select proper boot device error”. Fortunately, there is a way around this, as detailed here. Archive link.

That being said, I cannot recommend this laptop for that reason and that reason only as, while I was able to work around it, I shouldn’t have had to. Dell (who has long supported Linux) has a similar laptop that I have recommended to my neighbor, who is looking for a new laptop, as her 6 year old Celeron-based laptop is showing its age, although Linux Mint 17.3 XFCE has bought her some time and piece of mind after MS decided to force her computer to “upgrade” to Windows 10, which proceeded to BSOD.

I also had a problem with the built-in Wi-Fi disconnecting periodically. There are instructions here to fix it. Archive Link. I imagine newer versions of Linux Mint (and other Distributions) won’t have the same problem, although it’s helpful to know that there’s a fix in the meantime. I’m giving my mom an external Wi-Fi USB adapter just in case, as a computer that can’t connect to the Internet, is severely limited in its functionality.

The lack of moving parts means that the laptop is truly silent and, when they’re able to cram at least an Intel i3 CPU into the same silent form factor, I will look at getting one for myself. I imagine this will happen in another year or so when Intel releases their Kaby Lake CPU’s, although it might have to wait until Cannon Lake (with its 10nm fabrication process).

Finally, my Razor Black Widow keyboard was dying, with several keys failing to register, then double registering as I attempted to type. Although I could default to my wireless keyboard, I honestly don’t like to do any serious typing on standard keyboards. Looking online, I was shocked at not only prices of the newer models of keyboards, but the fact that most of them require Windows (and subsequent drivers) to function. Fortunately, there was a review amongst them that pointed me to Unicomp, and their Ultra Classic White Bucking Spring Keyboard (I grabbed the PS2 model because of the limitations of the amount of keys you can hit at once with the USB models – something that requires special hardware to overcome). Having learned to type on an actual typewriter in the 80’s, before moving on to electronic typewriters and the keyboards found on the IBM 5150 and XT/AT computers, this keyboard is exactly what I’ve been looking for. After S&H, the keyboard was $99, and given how well-built they are, I know it will serve me well for many, many years. Some people might not like the noise, but I live alone, so it doesn’t bother me one bit. The only down-side, is that when I built my next computer (not for another few years), I have to make sure it still has a PS2 port. Fortunately, the high-end motherboards seem to be keeping one of those ports on their offerings. Hopefully that is still the case in a few years.

Hopefully I won’t go so long without updating, and I really enjoy posting, especially when I have interesting things to post about. I hope things are going well in everyone else’s lives.

Pi 2 – Benchmarks

I ran a few benchmarks via hardinfo the other week and took pictures (with the flash off). I now have my Pi2 on a 3-way HDMI switcher (bought years ago for monitor) along with one of my backup computers, so it’s easier to mess with the Pi2 from time to time. I’d rather not have to physically switch HDMI plugs as my TV, nice as it is, only has two HDMI inputs.

First we have some info about the Pi2 as reported by the program.

Sysinfo 1

Info about the Pi2

Sysinfo 2

Info about the Pi2

Onto the actual tests.

Raytrace test

The Pi2 running the Raytrace test.

N-Queens test

The Pi2 running the N-Queens test.

Fibonacci test

The Pi2 running the Fibonacci test.

FFT test

The Pi2 running the FFT test.

Cryptohash test

The Pi2 running the Cryptohash test.

Blowfish test

The Pi2 running the Blowfish test.

Raspberry Pi 2 – Continued

Since I last wrote, I’ve had a little bit of time to try out the Raspberry Pi 2. I’m still working on the software side of things, including finding out how much it is capable of. Below are a few pictures I took as I unboxed the Pi 2, as well as a size comparison with its power adapter and a 16GB flash drive.


Unboxing the Pi 2

Unboxing the Pi 2

Unboxing the Pi 2

Unboxing the Pi 2

Unboxing the Pi 2

Unboxing the Pi 2

Unboxing the Pi 2

Unboxing the Pi 2

The Pi 2 is only slightly bigger than the power adapter plug.

The Pi 2 is only slightly bigger than the power adapter plug.

I hooked up the Pi 2 to my 55″ Samsung TV, and booted up the first time. I was greeted by the NOOBS screen and decided to install Raspbian as well as create a data partition. I would repeat this a few days later, when I formatted the microSD card and put a new version of NOOBS onto the card. Both times the installation was the same. It took roughly 10 minutes or so to install everything, though it could have been longer, as I wasn’t timing anything. I elected to overclock the Pi 2 from 900MHz to 1GHz, as well as disable overscan (it was only showing up on a portion of my TV screen), as well as assign 256MB of ram to the GPU.

The NOOBS screen.

The NOOBS screen.

Installing Raspbian.

Installing Raspbian.

Installing Raspbian.

Installing Raspbian.

After installing Raspbian OS, I began to install various applications to test how usable a Pi 2 would be as an office computer.

I installed Synaptic, then began installing various applications. LibreOffice, The Gimp, Ice Weasel, and Ice Dove were all installed and ran without any problems. I’ve yet to do any serious “work” with any of the applications at this time, though the system did feel reasonably responsive provided I stuck to one app at a time. While 1GB of ram that the Pi 2 sports is a significant upgrade, apps like Ice Weasel will grab a huge amount of that with more than a few tabs open.

I plan on doing a bunch of app/game testing over the next few weeks, though I will say so far, that in a pinch, the Pi 2 could be used to do some basic office tasks without too much trouble, in addition to being a capable programming platform.

To be continued.

Raspberry Pi 2 Model B (1GB)

I’ve ordered a Raspberry Pi 2 Model B that includes a case, power supply, heat sink, 8GB microSD card/Adapter, Wifi USB dongle, HDMI cable, and instructions. I have a tentative delivery date of Early March, but knowing Amazon, it should arrive quicker than that.

I was fascinated by the original Raspberry Pi when it debuted back in 2012, however I soon realized that while it made for an excellent learning tool and super low end pc for certain tasks, it was far from being powerful enough to run as a basic media center pc, or portable low end workstation. For those reasons, I elected to skip it, though I did enjoy reading about other people’s experiences with this machine and what they got it to do.

Once I saw the new specs for the Pi 2 Model B, I knew I needed to get one, as the upgrades to the CPU/RAM in particular are going to result in significant performance gains, which manifest in expanded potential roles for the Pi 2 that the original Pi could never handle.

This won’t have the power of the Intel-based fanless computer I’m working on (as soon as I can get a hold of the chip, I will start a series of posts on that), but for a portable system that I can team up with my external SSD (I will write a post on it as soon as I have used it a bit more) to take with me to friend’s homes that will allow me to play back media files, as well as handle typical thin client pc tasks, I think it’s a intriguing and dirt cheap option.

My favorite movies

My last post made me think about my favorite movies. While I can identify my top 2, beyond that I can’t number them.

1. On the Waterfront
2. The Bad Seed
Run Lola Run
The Godfather
The Godfather Pt. II
The Terminator
The Edukators
Requiem For a Dream
Kick Ass
Mean Creek
Fear and Loathing in Las Vegas
Fight Club

On the Waterfront on Blu Ray?

I’ve been delighted to have one of my favorite films, The Bad Seed (1956), on Blu Ray. The transfer overall is pretty good, but it does make me yearn all the more for my favorite movie of all time: On the Waterfront.

Powerful performances all around and great camera work. While it looks good on DVD, unlike The Bad Seed IMO, I can only imagine what it’ll look like in 1080p.


Here’s to hoping!


ASUS Transformer 16GB Review

ASUS Eee Transformer Review


July 8th, 2011 (Updated August 8, 2011 & Octorber 8th, 2011 – It just worked out that way)


I type up this review on my desktop computer as I listen to music via Bluetooth headphones that are paired to the Transformer. I just glanced back and checked on the status of some music that I’m copying onto the built in 16GB of memory that comes with the model I got a scant week and a half ago.


I happened upon the Transformer while doing research for a friend/client who wanted to know what I thought was the best value in Android tablets right now. After looking at the likes of the Galaxy among others, I finally ended up selecting the transformer, partially because of the lower cost, but also because of the optional dock, something I do plan on getting down the road.


Having never used any tablet before, regardless of the OS that inhabited it, I was free to look at all available. I quickly settled however, on an Anroid-based tablet because of the relative freedom the platform affords. Coming from an OSS background although I use Windows for my desktop, I found a lot of software that I use on my Desktop and various machines that ran Linux Mint available in various states on the Android market.


The biggest obstacle for using a platform for me, is being able to access my data just as if I were using my desktop computer. While it took a bit of trial and error, app experimenting and moments of enlightenment to find solutions to various obstacles, they were well worth the effort.




I was expecting a check from my friend to pay for both the parts for his computer and whatever he felt my help was worth. I didn’t expect a bit of money AND a tablet, but I ended up picking out my own payment when the Transformer made its way to me on a warm Tuesday morning in late June.


While ASUS may not try to emulate Apple, they have got that simplicity thing down. Upon opening the box, you are presented with the Transformer, the charging dock (2 pieces – functions as USB connector for Tranformer) and assorted paperwork. It was nice not to get a bunch of paperwork trying to sell me what I just bought for once.


I turned on the Transformer and booted up. After personalizing the thing, I elected to setup a Gmail/Google account to take advantage of the various services offered through it.


While this is of course optional, I felt that this was the best way to experience the Transformer. I directed my mail accounts that I use for personal and business use to forward their messages to my new Gmail account, creating both a backup of all the accounts as well as allowing my to use the tablet to take care of email duties if my desktop is busy or unavailable for some reason.



While I was familiar with Android from reading about it, I had yet to try it out myself. Granted there are emulators for it, but this is a case where I wanted to try out on actual hardware. I spent about an hour just exploring the interface. The controls are pretty straight forward, with little things here and there that one picks up in the course of installing and configuring the tablet.

My first desire, was accessing my Keepass database that I use on my desktop computer. I installed the Android app and encountered my first obstacle – file transfer between the tablet and networked computers. I later found out that I could attach the tablet via the USB part of the charger apparatus, but since I was charging the device up in the first place at that point, that didn’t strike me until I had problems with the charger itself, which I’ll go into later on.

I ended up managing to transfer a single file via Bluetooth, but at 18 seconds for 2.5MB, it’s an unreliable (I’ve been unable to do it a second time) method at this time. I was pointed to ES File Explorer, which I had installed and uninstalled during my first day with the machine without running it. A slip in memory that I’m wary of repeating again. Using ES File Explorer, I was able to navigate to my shared drives within a few clicks on the tablet.

File transfers were pretty quick, with the limiting factor being that my Wi-Fi network is currently limited to G connectivity until I get that new N-Router I’ve been eying. Still ~54Mbps before overhead is nice to play with and is only really limiting when file transferring. For day to day use, G connectivity is just fine.

While I was working on getting file transferring up, I installed Winamp, Skype, Teamviewer, Twitter, Google Docs, Firefox, QQPlayer, Task Panel and System Panel Lite among others. Winamp and QQPlayer have played everything I’ve thrown at them audio and video wise respectively without problems and without skipping. Teamviewer works just like its desktop peers, Skype went through an update while I was testing it out, which greatly improved the interface, though I’ve yet to get video working on it. Now that I have a quality Bluetooth headset, I’m looking at using it for Skype on all my computers.

Amazon MP3 is wonderful on Android, allowing one even more access to purchased music via cloud. Because Flash isn’t available for FireFox Android at this point, I was unable to test to see if Amazon Prime Video streaming would work, ditto with Netflix‘s Silverlight-based streaming and Hulu. I tried Opera on Hulu, but was told video was not available for my platform. This is something that will get better in the coming months.

The Youtube app works wonderfully and I was able to watch HD video without any skipping or other errors. With my horrible experience trying to get Flash working on Linux Mint x64 with some degree of stability so I wouldn’t have to kill the process every 5 minutes/5 videos still in my mind, I was admittedly a bit shocked that it worked so well.

All the apps I have tried, from Ebay to Amazon have worked without a hitch, save for a few games that crashed because of the version of Android I’m running, and the Facebook app giving me a “hand to the face” when I try to install it on Honeycomb.

Delving deeper

Being a gamer at heart, I am always looking at turning any device I own into a gaming machine, in addition to kicking butt where business is concerned. So, in addition to the standard games that one can download from the app store, I began looking for Android ports of my favorite emulators. More to the point, emulators for the systems I grew up with. While I love all game systems, the NES, SNES, and the Gameboy hold a special place in my heart because although my brother and I have owned other systems (a Dreamcast sits not 5 feet from me right now, hooked up to a 17 in. LCD via VGA adapter and a pair of Logitech 2.1 speakers), those are the ones that captivated us during our childhoods.

There is a setting that allows one to install apps outside the Android App store. After checking that, I was off to find where the emulators, which had been taken off the Android store without warning a month ago, had gone to. After locating an alternative app store, I was delighted to see that the emulators were free for a limited time. This includes Nesoid and Snesoid.

While the emulators worked on the games that I have backups of, I had no way to control them decently as the touch screen just doesn’t cut it. Without a dock, I have no access to USB ports and therefore my X-Arcade joystick or my SNES & N64 controller to USB adapters.

Fortunately, I have a WiiMotePlus and a classic controller.

While the emulator Snes9x EX lets you pair the Wiimote in its options, the other emulators don’t offer that, which presented another obstacle.

Realizing that I had installed but never tried out WiimoteControl, I started it up and paired my Wiimote within a couple of seconds, switched the Wiimote as the primary controller for the tablet and proceeded to map the buttons in Nesoid. Thirty seconds later I was jumping on Goombas in Super Mario Brothers, alas I didn’t get 5 on the clock so I didn’t get the fireworks and bonus points. Aside from that, the controller worked like a dream.

aDosbox is another app that I quickly grabbed and installed. There are a great many DOS games and this app, just like its other incarnations, will let you play them. I’ve yet to do much because without the dock, I have to rely on the onscreen keyboard, which takes up about half the screen when in use. I’ll do an update when I have a dock for this thing.

Overview and Conclusion

Tablets aren’t for everyone. While powerful and silent, they aren’t yet as portable as their smartphone siblings. That being said, I feel that they are a more reasonable bang for the buck at this point in time with dual core cpu smartphones just now being released with price points that reach into the $800 MSRP range. While a contract will lessen the financial blow for a new smartphone, most cell phone carriers require a data contract when subsidizing that new handset.

A tablet, especially a Wi-Fi only one like the Transformer I got, is an excellent compromise. While you pay full price for the tablet, you have no extra bills to look forward to for the next two years. A lower price for tablets compared to cell phones also helps the wallet as well.

For years we’ve been hearing about the coming of Linux on the desktop, with distros becoming more and more sophisticated it seemed to some that it was only a matter of time. While people like myself were running Windows for their main desktop and maintaining one or more Linux computers as guest machines, Android was evolving.

Catching people like myself off guard, Android has developed into a potent platform that is Linux on the desktop, just in a form that you can carry with you.


As I get to know this tablet better and get accessories like the dock, I will update this review with my findings. I am excited beyond words to be able to use a tablet as great as the Transformer, and look forward to newer models down the road.

BBBBBBBBBBBattleToads!! - ASUS Transformer

BBBBBBBBBBBattleToads!! - ASUS Transformer

Widgets on the leftmost screen - ASUS Transformer

Widgets on the leftmost screen - ASUS Transformer

Floppy, Flash and the ASUS Transformer

Floppy, Flash and the ASUS Transformer

Wolf3D - ASUS Transformer

Wolf3D - ASUS Transformer

Noctua vs Tablet

Noctua vs Tablet

Update (August 8th, 2011)

Regarding the charger issue: ASUS, after waiting nearly two weeks for a reply, suggested I contact their RMA department for a repair/replacement. I’ve yet to do this because I’ve been on painkillers and sleeping a lot. The charger does work mind you, it just needs a bit of wiggling (sometimes unplugging and plugging in helps).

The Dock: I acquired the dock for the Transformer a few weeks ago and have been putting it through it’s paces. Two thumb drives, one 1GB, the other 8GB, worked like a charm with either of the USB 2.0 ports the dock gives you. My X-Arcade stick doesn’t work, but my Adaptoid (N64 to USB adapter) and SNES Retrotap (4-port SNES to USB hub) both work without a hitch. I still like using the WiiMotePlus+Classic Controller the most, since there are no wires involved and the Bluetooth performance is fantastic. The keyboard makes typing quite easy and, combined with the ability to turn off the touchpad with a single button, is more comfortable for me than using my laptop. Since the USB 2.0 ports are split one to a side, I was unable to try out my external USB-powered DVD/CD burner burner, which uses two ports. I could always get a USB extension cable, but that’s down the road and optional since there are so many other ways to get data to and from the Transformer.


Metal Slug via Tiger Arcade:

Update (October 8th, 2011)

I found even more apps since my last update, not the least of which, is an Android port of MAME that runs ~2000 games. MAME4Droid was released in early September, but is already attracting a large amount of attention.

MAME4droid - ASUS Transformer

MAME4droid - ASUS Transformer

MAME4droid - Centipede - ASUS Transformer

MAME4droid - Centjpede - ASUS Transformer

MAME4droid - Crime Fighters - ASUS Transformer

MAME4droid - Crime Fighters - ASUS Transformer

In addition, I’ve gotten Netflix to work, which makes the transformer a great little “non-TV TV”, especially coming from someone who abandoned TV almost a decade ago (save for going to a friend’s house to watch MMA). Below, we have the lovely Ann Francis in my favorite Twilight Zone Episode – The After Hours.

The Twilight Zone - The After Hours - Netflix - ASUS Transformer

The Twilight Zone - The After Hours - Netflix - ASUS Transformer

I also grabbed a soft case that houses both the Transformer AND the dock, something I’ve yet to find elsewhere. While it won’t protect it if you drop it, it IS useful to keep it from getting dinged/scratched during transport.

Poetic(TM) 2in1 Ultra Light Leather Case for ASUS Eee Pad Transformer TF101

Poetic(TM) 2in1 Ultra Light Leather Case for ASUS Eee Pad Transformer TF101


Poetic(TM) 2in1 Ultra Light Leather Case for ASUS Eee Pad Transformer TF101

Poetic(TM) 2in1 Ultra Light Leather Case for ASUS Eee Pad Transformer TF101

Poetic(TM) 2in1 Ultra Light Leather Case for ASUS Eee Pad Transformer TF101

Poetic(TM) 2in1 Ultra Light Leather Case for ASUS Eee Pad Transformer TF101


There have been more firmware updates, which are supposed to improve the device even further, no I’ve yet to notice anything striking, so the changes are probably rather subtle/fix less than common issues. The next big step, is when Ice Cream Sandwich comes out. Hopefully this occurs before the end of the year.

Below, a video of Crime Fighters running under MAME4Droid: